Sunday, April 15, 2018

Issue - Large population of India extending headache

Issue - Increasing large population of India

Issue - Increasing large population of India

Recent Updates - 

  • Three young lawyers have requested the Supreme Court to consider drastic measures to prevent population growth. Along with this, another petition has also been filed, in which the minimum age of marriage has been urged. According to the petitioner, the minimum age of marriage should be 25 years for men and 21 years for women. 
  • It has been argued that population growth is directly related to the age of fertility. Most marriages occur in our country since the beginning of puberty, so women are soon pregnant. This trend can be prevented by raising the age of marriage.
  • There is another demand of the petitioner that the family who have more than two children, they should not be allowed to contest the elections of the Parliament and the Vidhan Sabha, political parties should not be made, and the ban should be imposed on the application of executive and judiciary's jobs. 
  • The intention of the applicant is honest, but it does not seem that adoption of these measures will be possible and if somehow they are accepted, the population of the country will increase In Dhi rate can made the difference. 
  • I think our real problem is that we do not have any population policy. Why do not we have a population policy? Because we follow the policies of Western Europe and America in most of our policies. 
  • There is no need for population policy in these areas, because the population there is neither growing nor decreasing. Rather, it is declining, which is being compensated through immigration from Asia and Africa. 
  • The problem there is going to be is that the cultural nature of their population is changing and one day it can come when non-German people in Germany and non-French people in France are increasing.Some people in India think that the time is not far away when the population of Muslims will be higher than the Hindus. Many times, Hindus are encouraged to create more children than this, but so far no logical base has been established. 
  • The evidence is rather inverted. But for the West, this problem is real because the local population is stable or decreasing and the number of people coming from outside is increasing.

Why Population Should Control

  • Clearly, the case of population is not personal, how many children want to be born. It is also related to national resources. 
  • After the second world war, the campaign of creating more children in the Soviet Union was run, and the more women the woman produced, the same was respected. Such mothers were also rewarded, so that the trend of growth of children could be encouraged. 
  • Now the government has withdrawn itself from this region because there has been a balance in the population. 
  • On the other hand, China has left a child policy and has come to the principle of two children so that the percentage of young people in the entire population can increase.

Policy Made by India -

  • But India? India has made this policy about the population problem that there is nothing to think about it or something to do. 
  • Family planning was a national slogan in the 60's and 70's. Government employees used to try to create less children. 
  • In these attempts, women's sterilization program is still going on, but after the failure of the family planning program, the government has not considered the problem of population growth, while we are seeing that our public services through the pressure of population It's getting screwed. 
  • There is no such area as food, water, electricity, education, housing, medicine where population pressure is not being felt. India can say that India has become a very big country.
  • We all experience this and also discuss it in mutual negotiation. Nevertheless, there is no consciousness of this horrible problem in political parties. 
  • Our leaders are unable to hear the ticking of population bomb. Even the Prime Minister does not express any concern in this matter. 
  • It is a question that why the people who are ticking with the political and intellectual class of India are so indifferent to the bomb?
  • The reason is hidden in his economic policies. The population can not be reduced by just applying or promoting the board. 

There can be two ways to reduce the population.

  1. Either an authoritarian means that there is an imbalance in the development, but no one has the right to create one or more children or the entire democracy, which means the participation of all in development, from which the number of middle class increases and those conditions decrease In which more children are born. China chose the first path, because it had little time.
  2. In western countries, the population is controlled by economic development and the participation of the general public in it. As the general public got intermediate, people began to produce fewer children. The new trend is not to create a child, which we can call the intent of consumerism. Due to single parents also the population will decrease

But we are neither good dictators nor good democratic. 

  • Like China, we could also solve the problem of population by way of dictatorship. But dictatorship is not ours. But democracy is not a gift to us, we do not want everyone to benefit from development. The failure of middle classing is our actual failure, which is presented as a problem of poverty.

Than What is the Solution?

  • If we are ready for a radical change in our economic policies then the growth of the population can stop, which will result in a rapid economic development. But the middle class of India fears that ordinary people will not be able to enter a large number in their respective states. Is it the effect of caste system?
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Thursday, April 12, 2018

Zuckerberg Apologizes in Parliament - Example of good Governance

Latest Pressing Issue

Zuckerberg Apologizes in Parliament

 Zuckerberg Apologizes in Parliament




For data licenses, Mark Zuckerberg had to stand in the US Parliament for two days. Where 44 MPs asked him questions for five hours. Zuckerberg had to apologize for many things. There was reassurance of changes in policy and improvement in technology. It is heartening to know that despite all the ideological and political differences there is so much of an institution's dignity that Zuckerberg's face was flooded in front of him.

  • I have been thinking since that day when there will be such a day in the Indian parliament, when we will see some junkberg stand in the same hand. Apologize to your mistakes, repent and look for improvements, will try to do it.
  • I tried a lot to find, but such example could not be found that a person has been called in such a way in the Indian Parliament. The answer has been summoned. One or two such cases came to mind, in which there was talk of calling anyone about the contempt of Parliament
  • But what happened in the US Senate mirrors Zuckerberg, standing beside the crowd of his top lawyers and policy makers, stood on one side and the entire Senate on the issues related to the rights of the people, the Russian Interference, the Fake News elections in 2016, were on one side. Senators questioned directly. Political speeches from Zuckerberg were questioned. They had to say that I do not want any person to take a decision on any political ideology. 
  • The Owner of Facebook had to rely on the fact that they will do their best to ensure that there is no tampering in political speeches.
  • A senator asked straightforward if you think that you and Facebook are very powerful. Zuckerberg could not answer this. He was listening silently. Someone asked why you can not protect users' information. Why not give them the right to remove inappropriate content? Why can not it be that if someone sees something inappropriate, then he can remove it.
  • In response, Zuckerberg could say that there is a need to improve the content policy. With the help of Artificial Intelligence, arrangements will be made to flag such content.
  • A senator took control of Zuckerberg on his privacy. Asked, would you like to publicize the name of the hotel you were staying at night? Would you like to mention the names of people whom you did last week?
  •  The right to your privacy, what are the limitations of that authority, what are you giving to Modern America in the midst of linking the whole world? It was a question that robbed the heart. After all, Zuckerberg had to admit that we have missed our accountability. I'm sorry, I'm sorry, sorry.
  • Often in the T-shirt, wearing the Navy Blue suit and Bright Blue tie in front of the Zuckerberg Senators. Perhaps they have been trying to show that the Facebook started as the medium of communication between the friends of the university, they now want to mature. Want to give a sky-high hope to the people who muff for mistakes and give them opportunities for further, so that we can improve.
  • Because at the time the Zuckerberg was snooping on the senators, many people outside the neighborhood stopped the espionage and stood the flag of Facebook deletion.
  • Then I remembered Neerav Modi, when he said that the bank and the investigation agencies are hasty. My whole business was rounded off. Now where do I get the money and how much I'll be able to pay? That is, we have theft and sina jori's season and on how there is a man standing in front of a man's Parliament ie entire country.
  • On the big issue of ours here too, solidarity between the opposition and opposition is very rare. Then the help and praise of each other then the imagination is impossible. 

Two examples are remembered in the entire state

  • One that Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru had ever told Atalji that I would be happy that you become the Prime Minister of the country.
  • And the same Atal ji called Indira Gandhi as Durga to play an important role in the partition of Pakistan. However, later it has been tried too hard.

Yet, it expects the hope that we will come here sometime in the morning when we will see any Nirvav Modi, Vijay Mallya and Lalit Modi standing like this.

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Wednesday, March 28, 2018

Civil Services Study Plan - UPSC Mains Questions

Civil Services Study Plan - UPSC 2018

How To Do the Correct Interpretation of UPSC Mains Questions

How To Do the Correct Interpretation of UPSC Mains Questions

We have got so many mail asking about the question ask in UPSC mains so we have decided to give you the clear picture about the questions. How they ask and what exactly they want from the questions . Some times you know the answer  but due to wrong interpretation of the questions you give wrong answer . So here we came up with this article so the you understand the meaning of the question .

1. Explain

  • You have to give detailed information of the topic like you need to answer what,why,where,how etc. You have to present all important points with justification.

2. Enumerate

  • You have to present all necessary points and need to give explanation one by one for each points.

3. Elucidate

  • It refers to making statement plain. In fact you have to explain it in such a way that it becomes intelligible

4. Reason

  • You have to find out the best reason for the given topic one by one.

5. Describe

  • You are supposed to write about various aspects of the given statement and also you have to presents both negative and positive points of your arguments.

6. Evaluate

  • You have to check the validity of the statement on the basis of evidences,data etc and at the end you have to give sound judgement .

7. Elaborate

  • You need to give detailed information in well organised way.

8. Formulate

  • You need to express the topic in well organised and systematic way.

9. Consider

  • You have to form an opinion after careful examination.

10. Justify

  • You have to prove the validity of the statement.

11. Outline

  • Fairly straightforward,needs an orderly,logical presentation of information.

12. Illustrate

  • It refers to explaining or making clear by giving examples.

13. Amplify

  • It refers to elaborating the statement. You add details,make it fuller.

14. Examine

  • It demands you to investigate the topic deeply and bring to light to various aspects of the given topic. It refers to inspecting something closely and bringing out facts.

15. Critically Examine

  • If you find the word critically examine anywhere in question then you have to look at goods or bads of the given topic and at last you have to present sound judgement.

16. Comment

  • It is opinion based question. You have to give your opinion and you also have to justify it(Give some evidences, arguments, data to justify you answer).

17. Critically comment

  • This type of questions are opinion based. You need to give your opinion on important points and at the end you have to give fair judgement.

18. What do you understand by this?

  • You have to write simply the various aspects of the given statements like definition,goods,bads etc

19. Give argument in favour of

  • You have to write in support of and against a statement and have to give reason to support your argument.

20. Highlight the salient features

  • You have to write the most important point related to topic.

21. List out the salient features

  • It’s straightforward question you simply need to write various important points related to given statement in the question

22. Give your judgement in favour of something

  • You have to form an opinion or give you decision after careful consideration. You have to give you sound decision .

23. Investigate

  • You have to examine the topic in well systematic way and need to find out the different aspects of the question like you have to find out motive, causes, some facts.

24. Assess

  • It demands examination and evaluation of the given topic.

25. Critically Assess

  • You have to analyse and Judge the topic in detailed manner along with it you have to give your comments and opinions.

26. Analyse

  • You have to take various facts or parts of a given statement in consideration bringing sunshine to it’s nature or structure.
  • You have to examine each part of the problem, have to tell its future implications, good or bad.

27. Critically analyse

  • Analyse the nature of each part and interrelate them and at the end you have to give fair judgement.

28. Distinguish

  • You have to give direct comparison between the topic and others.

29. Differentiate

  • Same as distinguish but you have to present detailed comparison with other.

30. Discuss

  • You are supposed to write about various aspects of the given statement and also you have to presents both negative and positive points of your arguments.

Also Read-

More Details Analysis-

Evaluate ::

  • Questions asking you to evaluate some issue expect you to judge the significance and worth of the topic under some criterion. Thus, merely writing the factual statements would not help in such questions. While, it might be necessary to provide some factual evidence for your arguments, it is more important in such questions to judge the worth of the concept, being discussed, as per the given context.
EXAMPLES- Evaluate the Participation of India in the IMF?

Explanation-

  • Now, this question does not ask you to write merely about India’s participation in the IMF and various agreements or developments. But, it asks you to write how is India’s participation in the IMF justified. Thus, you cannot fetch good marks merely by giving the details about the Indian participation. You should provide rational reasons regarding the effectiveness and worth of it.

:: Examine ::

  • These questions are much like the evaluate-type of question, but it requires the candidate to write the different shades of the topic. It requires the candidate to inquire into the topic and make an evaluation from the candidate's perspective.
EXAMPLES- Examine the role of women in the Indian national movement?

Explanation-

  • This question, expects the candidate to evaluate the different dimensions of the topic, and decide for the aptness of the question. Thus, you should touch the various aspects of the question and provide why and how does it justify itself. thus, for this question you should give the instances of how women participated in the indian national movement, and explain why was it significant.

:: Analyze ::

  • These questions require the candidate to analyze the topic being asked, with other similar concepts and draw out the characteristic features and qualities, while also highlighting the positive and negative points of the topic.
EXAMPLES- Analyze the role of Panchayats in the empowerment of the poor and marginalized.

Explanation-

  • To analyze a topic, you should bring out the points both- in favor and against the given argument. Further, you should explain your view, as to how it can be proved with the given evidence. For this question, you should discuss how the panchayats have helped the poor and marginalized section, and what are the various challenges and obstacles for their empowerment under the present framework. Then, at the bend of the answer, you should also conclude your argument by a side.

:: Critically Discuss ::

  • Questions with the tag of 'critically discuss' are broad-based questions which expects the candidate to write about the topic from his own perspective. In addition, it requires the candidate to bring out the points of criticism regarding the concept.
EXAMPLES- Critically Discuss the developments in the Education sector in India.

Explanation-

  • For this question, while the first thing a candidate should write is the contemporary situation in the field of education in india, and then move towards the criticism part. It is important to note that for such questions the candidate should also put his own perspective and views. Thus, while highlighting the achievement in the education sector, you should also give the shortcomings and loopholes of the education policy in india.

:: Outline ::

  • The questions that asks you to outline about the issue, requires you to draw a framework about the topic, with different details and constituents. Such an essay is a descriptive essay containing more facts and less analysis.
EXAMPLES- Give an Outline of the System of Economic Planning in India.

Explanation-

  • For this question, you should give a detailed sketch of the evolution of the system of economic planning in india. You may advance in a historical chronology or according to the various planning frameworks. However, it is beneficial if you also provide an evaluation of the topic, in the latter section of the essay.
Hope This Article will help you in you UPSC main Examination.
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Indigenously Developed Missile Systems in India - UPSC Prelims 2018

Civil Services Study Material For Prelims 2018 - 

Civil Services Study Material, Civil Services Study Plan, Civil Services Study Centre, Civil Services Study Centre Kolkata, Civil Services Study Material Pdf, Civil Services Study Material In Hindi Pdf, Civil Services Study Material Free Download, Civil Services Study Material For Prelims, Civil Services Study Material For General Studies, Civil Services Study Material In Hindi,Upsc Exam Materials, Upsc Exam Materials Pdf

Indigenously Developed Missile Systems in India

The List Are Given Below -

Prithvi I 

  • Prithvi I was one of the first missiles developed under Government of India's IGMDP. Launched in February 1988, Prithvi I is a single-stage, liquid-fuelled missile. A surface-to-surface missile, it has a range of 150 km and a mounting capability of 1000 kg. It was inducted into the Indian Army in 1994.

Agni I

  • A nuclear-capable ballistic missile, Agni 1 is the first of the five-missile Agni series launched in 1983 by the Defence Research and Development Organisation. It has a range of 700 km.

Akash

  • Akash is a surface-to-air missile with an intercept range of 30 km. It has multi-target engagement capability and is in operational service with the Indian Army and the Indian Air Force.

Nag

  • Nag is a third-generation hit-to-kill anti-tank missile that was first tested in 1990. The two-stage solid propellant weapon uses the lock-on before launch system where the target is identified and designated before the weapon is launched. 

Trishul

  • Trishul is a short-range surface-to-air missile equipped with electronic measures against all known aircraft jammers. It has a range of 9 km and is used as anti-sea skimmer from ships against low-flying attacks.

Agni II

  • An intermediate-range ballistic missile, the Agni-II was first test fired on April 11, 1999. The surface-to-surface missile has a range of 2000 to 2500 km and can carry conventional or nuclear warheads. 

Prithvi III

  • Prithvi III is the naval-version missile with a range of 350 km. A two-stage surface-to-surface missile, Prithvi III was first tested in 2000. 

Brahmos

  • BrahMos is a supersonic cruise missile that is first test-fired on June 12, 2001. It was developed as a joint venture between India and Russia and is the world's fastest anti-ship cruise missile in operation.

Prithvi Air Defence (PAD)

  • India’s ballistic missile defence got a fillip with the development of PAD, which has been given the moniker Pradyumna. The system was tested with a maximum interception altitude of 80 km, and has been designed to neutralise missiles within a range of 300-2000 km up to a speed of Mach 5.0. The technology employed in the PAD was the precursor to the indigenously developed Advanced Air Defence (AAD) interceptor missile which was tested in 2007, as well as the Barak-2 which was developed in collaboration with Israel. 

K-15 Sagarika

  • The successful test of the Sagarika marks an inflection point in India’s military history. It forms the crucial third leg of India’s nuclear deterrent vis-à-vis its submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) capability. The K-15 Sagarika, which has a range of 750 km, was successfully tested in February 2008, and was subsequently integrated with India’s nuclear-powered Arihant class submarine. 

Dhanush

  • Dhanush is a liquid propelled sea-based missile that was envisaged as a short-range version of the Prithvi II ballistic missile. It has a range of 350 km and is capable of carrying nuclear warheads. It was successfully test-fired from a naval warship in March 2011, and carries forward the legacy of the K-15 Sagarika. 

Agni III

  • Agni III is an intermediate-range ballistic missile developed as the successor to the Agni II. It is an improvement over its previous iteration, and has a range of 3,500-5,000 km, making it capable of engaging targets deep inside neighbouring countries. It was inducted in to the armed forces in June 2011, enhancing its strike capability. 

Agni IV

  • Carrying forward the success of its predecessor, the Agni III was developed to strike targets within a similar range but with a significantly shorter flight time of 20 minutes. The Agni IV, which has a two-phase propulsion system is designed to carry a 1,000 kg payload. 

Shaurya

  • It was initially conceived as a surface-to-surface ballistic missile (SSM) variant of the K-15 Sagarika, that can be stored in underground silos for extended periods and launched using gas canisters as a trigger. The nuclear capability of the missile enhances India’s second strike capability reduces the dependence on the K-15 ballistic missile which was built with significant Russian assistance. 

Nirbhay

  • Nirbhay is a subsonic missile which is ancillary to the BrahMos range. It uses a terrain-following navigation system to reach up to 1,000 km. Nirbhay is capable of being launched from multiple platforms on land, sea, and air. 

Prahaar

  • Prahaar is a surface-to-surface missile with a range of 150 km that was successfully tested for the first time in July 2011. Stated to be a unique missile, the Prahaarboasts of high maneuverability, acceleration and accuracy. Primarily a battlefield support system for the Army, the missile can be fired from a road mobile launchers and is extremely mobile in battle situations owing to its lighter build. 

Also Read - 

Essay-International Solar Alliance (ISA) Summit -2018

Astra

  • Astra is a beyond-visual-range (BVR) air-to-air missile (AAM) that was tested successfully in May 2011. In terms of size and weight, the Astra is the smallest missile developed by the DRDO. It was envisaged to intercept and destroy enemy aircraft at supersonic speeds in the head-on mode within a range of 80 km. 

Agni V

  • Agni is India’s first inter-continental ballistic missile (ICBM), with high road mobility, fast-reaction ability and a strike range of over 5,000 km.
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Saturday, March 24, 2018

Legal Entity Identifier (LEI) - Prelims Approach

UPSC-Study-Plan-Prelims-2018 

UPSC-Study-Plan-Prelims-2018

Legal Entity Identifier (LEI)

  • LEI is a 20-digit unique code to identify parties to financial transactions worldwide. It is a global reference number that uniquely identifies every legal entity or structure that is party to a financial transaction, in any jurisdiction. 
  • LEI code has been conceived as key measure to improve quality and accuracy of financial data systems for better risk management post the global financial crisis.
  • The LEI system was developed by G20 in response to inability of financial institutions to identify organisations uniquely, so that their financial transactions in different national jurisdictions can be fully tracked. The first LEIs were issued in December 2012.
  • Legal Entity Identifier India Limited (LEIL), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Clearing Corporation of India (CCI), acts as a local operating unit (LOU) for issuing globally compatible legal entity identifiers (LEIs) in India. 
  • Besides, entities can also obtain LEI from any of local operating units (LOUs) accredited by Global Legal Entity Identifier Foundation (GLEIF) – the entity tasked to support implementation and use of LEI.

Listing timeline for implementing LEI

  • Borrowers with fund and non-fund exposure of Rs 1,000 crore and above will have to get LEI by March 2018. Those having exposure between Rs 500 crore and Rs 1,000 crore have to obtain LEI code by June 2018 and those having between Rs 100 crore and Rs 500 crore by March 2019.
  • Separate roadmap for borrowers having exposure between Rs. 5 crore and up to Rs. 50 crore will be issued in due course. 
  • Borrowers who do not obtain LEI as per schedule will not be granted renewal or enhancement of credit facilities.
  • LEIL will assign LEIs to any legal identity including but not limited to all intermediary institutions, banks, partnership companies, mutual funds, trusts, holdings, special purpose vehicles (SPVs), asset management companies and all other institutions being parties to financial transactions.

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Monday, March 19, 2018

Essay-International Solar Alliance (ISA) Summit -2018

UPSC - Essay - International Solar Alliance (ISA) Summit

UPSC - Essay - International Solar Alliance (ISA) Summit

India, France co-hosted first International Solar Alliance (ISA) Summit

  • India, France co-hosted first International Solar Alliance (ISA) Summit at Rashtrapati Bhavan Convention Centre in New Delhi. The aim of the summit was to deliberate on finance mechanism for promotion of solar energy in member countries, crowd-funding and technology transfer. 
  • The summit was co-hosted by President Ram Nath Kovind and his French counterpart President Emmanuel Macron. It was attended by 21 heads of states and heads of government, several top ministers and bureaucrats apart from participants from multilateral banks and United Nations. Its focus was to mobilise $1 trillion of investments needed by 2030 for massive deployment of solar energy. 
  • The summit was of particular significance to India as it strives to achieve ambitious target of generating 175 GW of renewable energy, including 100 GW of solar energy, by 2022.

Key Takeaway from Summit

  • 10-point action plan: It was presented by India. It includes making affordable solar technology available to all nations, raising share of electricity generated from photovoltaic cells, framing regulations and standards, providing consultancy support for bankable solar projects and creating network of centres for excellence.

Common Risk Mitigation Mechanism

  • It was announced by France. It will be put in place before the end of 2018. The mechanism was developed by taskforce comprising Council on Energy, Environment and Water, Terrawatt Initiaitve and The Currency Exchange Fund (TCX).

Delhi Solar Agenda

  • It was launched at founding summit, which states that countries will pursue increased share of solar energy in final energy consumption in their respective national energy mix to tackle global challenges of climate change.

Commitment to Increase share of solar power 

  • As many as 62 member-nations committed that they will increase share of solar power in their energy mix to deal with climate change and provide energy to underprivileged in society.

Financial Contribution

  • India will give $1.4 billion in aid to 15 other developing nations for 27 more solar projects. It already has contributed $62 million to ISA corpus fund and for establishment of ISA secretariat. Beside this, France will provide €700 million in loans and support by 2022 to emerging economies for solar energy projects.

International Solar Alliance (ISA)

  • ISA is treaty-based inter-governmental organisation (first to be based in India) that was established following as an alliance dedicated to the promotion of solar energy among its member countries. It is one of the key takeaways at the 2015 Paris Climate summit. ISA is aimed at tapping solar energy in countries that lie partially or fully between Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. It is headquartered in India.

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Saturday, March 17, 2018

Geography Study Materials-Benefits and Features of Contract Farming

 UPSC Geography Online Study Materials

अनुबन्ध खेती के लाभ व विशेषतायें

Benefits and Features of Contract Farming

अनुबन्ध खेती के लाभ व विशेषतायें

  • राष्ट्रीय नमूना सर्वेक्षण संगठन की एक रिपोर्ट के अनुसार देश के 40 प्रतिशत किसान खेती छोड़ना चाहते हैं। लेकिन वैकल्पिक रोजगार के अभाव में वे इससे चिपके हुए हैं। जबकि कृषि आधारित उत्पाद बनाने वाली फर्में लगातार अपनी गुणवत्ता में सुधार की ओर अग्रसर हैं। 
  • हमारी कृषि व्यवस्था में उत्तम बीज एवं उर्वरक, बुवाई एवं कटाई की आधुनिक मशीनें, पर्याप्त ऋण सुविधाएं, उन्नत तकनीकी, लाभदायक बाजारों में विपणन का ज्ञान, किसानों में आत्मविश्वास की कमी आज भी देखने को मिलती है। 
  • जो उत्पादक फर्मोए खाद प्रसंस्करण के काम में लगी हुई हैं, वे फर्में कच्चे माल की उपलब्धता के लिए अनुबन्ध खेती के प्रति अपना रूख दिखा रही हैं। अनुबन्ध खेती के अन्तर्गत ऐसी फर्मों को कच्चा माल आसानी से मिल जाता है तथा किसानों को विपणन की भी समस्या नहीं उठानी पड़ती है।

अनुबन्ध खेती क्या है : 

  • अनुबन्ध खेती किसानों एवं कृषि विपणन कम्पनियों के बीच पूर्व निर्धारित दरों पर कृषि तथा बागवानी उपजों के लेन देन का समझौता है। यह कम्पनियोंए किसानों एवं सरकार के बीच का समझौता भी हो सकता है। 
  • अनुबन्ध खेती के तहत किसानों को एक निश्चित मूल्य पर निश्चित समयावधिए निश्चित मात्रा तथा निश्चित गुणवत्ता वाले विशिष्ट उत्पाद के उत्पादन और आपूर्ति के लिए नियुक्त किया जाता है। कम्पनी किसानों को बीज, उर्वरक, कृषि प्रोद्योगिकी, ऋण तथा कृषि उपकरण भी प्रदान करती है। 
  • भारत में पेप्सी फूड्स, मार्क्स स्पेंसर, केल्लॉग, गॉडफ्रे, कैडबरी इण्डिया, आई.टी.सी., कारगिल, रैलीस आदि राष्ट्रीय एवं बहुराष्ट्रीय कम्पनियां अनुबन्ध खेती में संलग्न हैं। इसके साथ कई अन्य कम्पनियां भी इस क्षेत्र में हैं। जैसे बल्लारपुर इन्डस्ट्रीज, ग्रीन एग्रो पैक, ग्लोबल ग्रीन, यूनाईटेड ब्रेवरीज आदि कई भारतीय कम्पनियों ने विदेशी कम्पनियों के साथ मिलकर संयुक्त उद्यम के रूप में अनुबंध खेती के रूप में प्रवेश किया है।

भारत में अनुबंध खेती की शुरूआत 

  • भारत में अनुबंध खेती की शुरूआत 1980 के दशक में की गई थी। पंजाब में बीज की नवीन किस्मोंए गहरी जुताईए नवीन तकनीकी तथा शॉवेल तकनीक जैसे बुआई के नये तरीकों का समावेश किया गया। इसी प्रकार आंध्र प्रदेश और कर्नाटक में सूरजमुखी, तमिलनाड, महाराष्ट्र और आंध्र प्रदेश में फलों एवं सब्जियों का उत्पादन किया जा रहा है। 
  • इनमें अनुबंध खेती के अन्तर्गत किसानों की औसत उपज राज्य के औसत उत्पादन से 25 से 50 प्रतिशत तक अधिक है। जबकि अन्य किसानों के मुकाबले अनुबन्धित किसानों की प्रति हेक्टेयर आय 40 प्रतिशत से अधिक है। यह अनुबन्धित कम्पनियां बीजों की नई किस्मों, गहरी जुताई, नवीन तकनीक, बुआई के नये तरीकों का भी समावेश कर रही हैं। 
  • कृषिगत बीजों के उत्पादन एवं आपूर्ति के व्यवसाय में 150 से भी अधिक कम्पनियां अपना व्यवसाय अनुबन्धित कम्पनियों पर आधारित करए चला रही हैं। गेहूं उत्पादन के लिए हिन्दुस्तान लीवर लिमिटेड ने मध्य प्रदेश सरकार के साथ एक संयुक्त पहल की। जिसमें 250 एकड़ भूमि में शुरू हुई परियोजना 15000 एकड़ भूमि में फैल गयी है। 
  • रैलीस किसान केन्द्रों ने फलए सब्जियों और बासमती चावल से सम्बन्धित अनुबंध खेती की पायलट परियोजना होशंगाबाद (मध्य प्रदेश), बंगलुरू (कर्नाटक), नासिक (महाराष्ट्र) तथा पानीपत (हरियाणा) में स्थापित की है। आई.टी.सी. के ई-चौपाल (सूचना तकनीकी पर आधारित एक हस्तक्षेप) ने किसानों एवं उपभोक्ताओं के बीच मध्यस्थों का उन्मूलन करके कृषि विपणन का एक सीधा चैनल विकसित किया है। 
  • हमारा देश दुग्ध उत्पादन, बागवानी और मछली पालन व्यवसाय के क्षेत्र में भी अर्न्तराष्ट्रीय बाजार में अपनी अच्छी पकड़ बनाये हुए है। किन्तु निराशा इस बात की है कि प्रतियोगिता के चलते इन लाभो में निरन्तर कमी हो रही है। अतः अनुबन्ध खेती को अपनाकर हम एक तरफ तो कृषि उपज में वृद्धि करना चाहते है तथा दूसरी तरफ अपनी उपलब्ध संसाधनों का भरपूर उपयोग कर आय मे वृद्धि करना चाहते हैं। 
  • इसके लिए सरकार को आधारभूत एवं ढांचागत सुविधाएं उपलब्ध करानी होंगी। साथ ही किसानों को भी मानसिक रूप से तैयार करना होगा। क्योंकि हमारे देश की सामाजिक एवं सांस्कृतिक परम्परायें रूढ़िवादिता पर आधारित हैं। जो अनुबन्ध खेती के लिए किसानों को भावनात्मक ठेस पहुंचाती हैं। 
  • फार्मों को भी किसानों के साथ आपसी रिश्ते सही रखना आवश्यक है। क्योंकि यदि फर्म अनुबन्ध के आधार पर किसानों के साथ अपने वादे पूरा नहीं करती है तो अनुबन्ध भंग होने की आशंका हो सकती है। कोई भी फर्म यह आकलन अवश्य करती है कि उसे पर्याप्त लाभ मिले और जोखिमों को भी आसानी से वहन किया जा सके।

अनुबन्ध खेती के लाभ :

  1. किसानों द्वारा अनुबन्ध खेती के अन्तर्गत फार्मों से फसल का मूल्य शुरुआत में ही तय कर लिया जाता है। अतः मूल्य सम्बन्धित जोखिमों से मुक्ति मिल जाती है। 
  2. परम्परागत कृषि के अन्तर्गत अदृश्य बेरोजगारी छिपी रहती है। अर्थात कुछ समय काम मिलता है और कुछ समय खाली बिताना पड़ता है। जबकि अनुबन्ध खेती के अर्न्तगत व्यावसायिक फसलों की उपज की जाती है। जिसमें किसानों के पूरे परिवार को अपनी थोड़ी जमीन पर ही ऊंची दर पर पूरे समय कार्य करने का मौका मिल जाता है और व्यवसायिक फार्मों के सम्पर्क के आकर अधिक लाभ की संभावनाएं तलाशते रहते हैं। 
  3. अनुबन्ध खेती के अन्तर्गत छोटे किसान जिनको उपज बेचने की समस्या आती है उन्हें फर्मो द्वारा अर्न्तराष्ट्रीय बाजार की प्राप्ति हो जाती है तथा अपनी उपज का उचित मूल्य मिल जाता है। 
  4. अनुबन्ध खेती में किसानों को विश्व व्यापार संगठन एवं फार्मों के अनुसार अपनी खेती का व्यवस्थित रिकॉर्ड रखना पड़ता है। जिसमें खादए बीजए प्रावधि आदि का रिकॉर्ड होता है। यदि फिर भी उसे पूर्ण सफलता नहीं मिलती है तो उसका विश्लेषण फर्म करती है अथवा स्वयं ही अपनी कार्यक्षमता बढ़ा सकता है।•छोटे किसानों को फसल चक्र के अनुसार समय.समय पर ऋण एवं अग्रिमों की आवश्यकता होती रहती है। 
  5. अतः इस समस्या के निवारण के लिए अनुबन्ध खेती के अन्तर्गत फर्म किसानों को या तो सीधे तौर पर ऋण उपलब्ध करवा देती है अथवा ऋण प्रदान करने वाली ऐजेन्सी से ऋण दिलाने में सहायता करती है। 
  6. अनुबन्ध खेती में लगी फर्मो को अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय प्रतिस्पर्धा झेलनी पड़ती है। अतः उत्पाद की गुणवत्ता को बनाये रखने के लिए फर्म किसानों को नई तकनीकी का प्रशिक्षण भी प्रदान करती है। साथ ही उत्तम किस्म के बीजए उर्वरकए कीट नाशक दवाईयां एवं उपकरण भी उपलब्ध करवाती है। 
  7. अनुबन्ध खेती में किसानों के साथ फार्में भी अपने कच्चे माल की आपूर्ति सुनिश्चित कर अपनी हानि को कम कर सकती हैं। साथ ही उच्च गुणवत्ता के उत्पाद भी निर्धारित कीमत पर प्राप्त कर सकती है। 
  8. किसानों एवं कृषि से जुड़ी व्यावसायिक गतिविधियों जैसे डेयरीए मछली पालनए मुर्गी पालनए सुअर पालन आदि को भी बढ़ावा देकर इनका लाभ उठाया जा सकता है।

अनुबन्ध खेती की कठिनाईंयां

  • अनुबन्ध खेती में काफी लागतें आती है जो अनावश्यक रूप से लाभ में कमी करती हैं। साथ ही अतिवृष्टि और अनावृष्टि तथा कीटों के प्रभाव से भी यदि फसल प्रभावित होती है तो इसका प्रभाव भी लागतों के रूप में बढ़कर फर्म अथवा किसानों पर ही पड़ता है। 
  • अतः इसमें अनिश्चितता बनी रहती है।यदि कोई किसान अपनी भूमि का स्वामित्व स्थानान्तरित कर देता है तो अनुबन्ध खेती के अनुबन्ध को लागू कराने में फर्म को अनेक कठिनाईयों का सामना करना पड़ता है।हमारे देश में अधिकतर किसानों के पास जमीनों के छोटे.छोटे टुकड़े हैं। 
  • जिसमें फार्मों को अनुबन्ध करने में अनेक समस्याएं आती हैं तथा किसानों को आधारभूत सुविधाएं उपलब्ध कराने में समस्या आती है।फसल की कीमत फसल के उगाने से पहले ही तय कर दी जाती है। अतः इसमें जोखिम की सम्भावना अधिक होती है और अनुबन्ध भंग पर कानूनी कार्यवाही के गम्भीर परिणाम भुगतने पड़ते हैं।

निष्कर्ष

  • समग्रतः अनुबन्ध खेती बहुराष्ट्रीय कम्पनियों द्वारा कृषि का व्यवसायीकरण है। इस व्यवसाय पर बाजार का निर्णायक प्रभाव रहता है। इसी लिए बिना पर्याप्त सरकारी हस्तक्षेप के अनुबंध खेती एक नये प्रकार का सामन्तवाद पैदा कर सकती है। 
  • इसलिए अनुबन्ध खेती को मजबूत करने हेतु आवश्यक है कि एक कानूनी ढांचा स्थापित किया जाये व अनुबन्धों के क्रियान्वयन हेतु स्वायत्त निकाय बनें। अनुबन्धों के मूल्य गुणवत्ता सम्बन्धी शर्तों तथा अन्य दायित्वों के मामले में पारदर्शिता बरती जाये।

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