Prelim Notes- NPP-MPC-CBP-El-Nino-White Tigers

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UPSC-Prelim-Study-Notes 2018

White Tigers El-Nino  Customs and Border Protection (CBP) Monetary Policy Committee (MPC)  National Power Portal (NPP)

National Power Portal (NPP)

  • NPP is centralised system for Indian Power Sector. ‎It will facilitate online data capture, input (daily, monthly, annually) from generation, transmission and distribution utilities in country. ‎It will also disseminate Power Sector Information (operational, capacity, demand, supply, consumption etc) through various analysed reports, graphs, statistics for generation, transmission and distribution at all India, state, regional level for central, state and private sector.
  • NPP is integrated with associated systems of CEA, Power Finance Corporation (PFC), Rural Electrification Corporation (REC) and other major utilities. It will serve as single authentic source of power sector information to apex bodies, utilities for purpose of analysis and planning, monitoring and for public users.
  • The NPP Dashboard has been designed and developed to disseminate analyzed information about sector through Geographic Information System (GIS) enabled navigation and visualization chart windows on capacity, generation, transmission, distribution at national, state, DISCOM, town, feeder level and scheme based funding to states.
  • ‎The Dashboard will act as single point interface for all Power Sector applications launched previously by Power Ministry like TARANG, UJALA, GARV, URJA, VIDYUT PRAVAH, MERIT. ‎The system will be available 24×7 and ensures effective and timely collection of data. It will standardized data parameters and formats for seamless exchange of data between NPP and respective systems at utilities.

Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) 

  • MPC is a committee of the central bank — Reserve Bank of India, headed by its Governor. It was set up by amending the RBI Act to provide for a statutory and institutionalised framework for MPC. 
  • The 6 member MPC is entrusted with the task of fixing the benchmark policy interest rate (repo rate) to contain inflation within the target level. 
  • The majority voice of the committee will be final in deciding the interest rates. Composition of MPC includes Governor of RBI (ex officio Chairperson), Deputy Governor of RBI, in charge of Monetary Policy (Member), one officer of RBI (Member) and three members appointed by Central Government as members. 
  • Each member has one vote and governor has casting vote in case of tie.

Customs and Border Protection (CBP) initiative 

  • Under this initiative, international GEP member traveller can enter in US through automatic kiosks, rather than queueing up to clear immigration check by meeting an immigration officer at selected airports. At these selective airports, the specified members need proceed to the Global Entry kiosks, present their machine-readable passport, place their fingerprints on the scanner for verification and complete a customs declaration. 
  • The Global Entry kiosk then will issue the traveller a transaction receipt and directs him or her to the baggage claim and the exit. 
  • It should be noted that under the GEP, travellers must be pre-approved for the initiative. All applicants for GEP undergo a rigorous background check and in-person interview before enrolment. 
  • Presently, Global Entry programme is available at 53 US airports and 15 pre-clearance locations. It is now available to US citizens, Green Card holders and nationals from Germany, Mexico, Netherlands, Panama, South Korea, Argentina, Colombia, Singapore, Switzerland and UK besides India.

El-Nino 

  • El-Nino is a weather phenomenon, during which temperature at sea surface is warmer than normal sea-surface temperatures. 
  • El Nino is a warming of the Pacific Ocean between South America and the Date Line, centred directly on the Equator, and typically extending several degrees of latitude to either side of the equator. 
  • It accompanies high air surface pressure in the western Pacific. El Niño occurs when tropical Pacific Ocean trade winds die out and ocean temperatures become unusually warm.

White Tigers

  • White Tigers In India, white tigers are predominantly found in Rewa, Madhya Pradesh. In 2016, world’s first White Tiger Safari was inaugurated at Mukundpur in Satna district of Madhya Pradesh. 
  • The first white tiger in Madhya Pradesh’s was spotted in Vindhya region in 1915. However, the rare breed of the big cat spotted for the first time died in 1920. In 1951, a white tiger cub named Mohan was captured by Rewa Maharaja Martand Singh. Later the tiger cub became the progenitor of all known white tigers in the world after the Maharaja arranged for its breeding. 
  • White tigers in India are nothing but a pigmentation variant of the Bengal tiger. They have been reported in the wild from time to time in the Indian states of Assam, West Bengal, Bihar. 
  • These tigers have white fur because of the lack of the pigment phenomenal, which is found in Bengal tigers with orange colour .