UPSC Study Materials For Preliminary Exam 2017

HISTORY XII NCERT PART III ( Notes)

HISTORY XII NCERT PART III ( Notes)

Chapter 1

Colonial Rule was first established in Bengal

Permanent settlement:

Since the conquest of Bengal, British had been facing many problems.
  • Rural economy in Bengal was in crisis.
  • Officials thought to encourage investments in agriculture and this could be done by securing rights of property and permanently fixing the rates of revenue demand.
  • The permanent settlement had come into operation in 1793.
  • British officials made permanent settlement with the rajas and taluqdars of Bengal, who were classified as Zamindars.
  • Zamindars had several villages under them.
  • The villages within one zamindari form one revenue estate.
  • The company fixed the total demand over the entire estate whose revenue the zamindar contracted to pay. Failing which his estate could be auctioned.
  • Charles Cornwallis was the Governor general of Bengal when the permanent settlement was introduced there.
  • Zamindars collects rent from ryots and pay the demand to the company.
  • To regulate and control zamindars they were brought under the supervision of a collector appointed by the company.

Rise of the Jotedars:

  • Rich peasants were known as jotedars.
  • Jotedars had acquired vast areas of land, they controlled local trade as well as money lending.
  • Jotedars were located in the village and exercised direct control.
  • They influenced ryots to resist increase of rent by Zamindars.
  • In some places they were called hooladars, Gantidars or mandals.

The Fifth Report:

  • Many political groups in England felt that the conquest of Bengal was benefitting only East India Company but not the British nation as a whole.
  • British parliament forced the company to produce regular reports on the administration of India.5th report was the fifth of a series of such reports.
  • 5th report included petitions of zamindars and ryot, reports of collectorate, notes on the revenue and judicial administration of Bengal and Madras.

Francis Buchanan:

  • He was surgeon to the Governor General of India, Lord Wellesley.
  • He organised a Zoo in calcutta that became the kolkatta Alipore Zoo.
  • On the request of the Government of Bengal, he undertook detailed surveys of the area under the jurisdiction of the British East India.

Aquatint

  • It is a picture produced by cutting into copper sheet with acid and then printing it.
  • Paharias were folk around the rajmahal hills subsisting on forest produce and practising shifting cultivation.

The santhals:

  • They had begun to come into bengal around the 1780s.
  • British officials invited them to settle in the Jangal mahals.
  • The santhals were given land and persuaded to settle in the foothills of Rajmahal.
  • By 1832 a large area of land was demarcated as Damin I koh.
  • Santhals were settled down and cultivated a range of commercial crops for the market and dealing with traders and moneylenders.

Money

  • lenders (dikhus) were charging high interest rates.
  • Zamindars were trying to exercise superior authority.
  • Santhals revolted against Dikhus, Zamindars and british in the year 1855.

Ryotwari settlement:

  • It was introduced in the Bombay Deccan.
  • The average income from different types of soil was estimated. The revenue paying capacity of the ryots was assessed and a proportion of it fixed as the share of the state.
  • This revenue system was first introduced in the year 1820's.

Cotton Boom:

  • In 1857 the cotton supply association was founded in Britain.
  • In 1859 the manchester cotton company was formed.
  • Before 1860s, 3/4th of raw cotton was imported from America.
  • American civil war broke out in 1861, this led to panic in Britain cotton circles.
  • Company officials encouraged cotton cultivation in India.
  • In 1859 the British passed a limitation law that stated that the loan bonds signed between money lenders and ryots would have validity for only 3 years.
  • By 1865 the cotton production in America revived and Indian cotton exports steadily declined.

Chapter – 2 

  • Late in the afternoon of 10 May 1857, the Sepoys in the cantonment of Meerut broke out in Mutiny.
  • The Sepoys arrived at the gates of the Red Fort early in the morning on 11 May.
  • The revolt was carried on in the name of the Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah.
  • Captain Hearsey of the Awadh Military Police had been given protection by his Indian subordinates during Mutiny.
  • In Kanpur, Nana Sahib, the successor to Peshwa Baji Rao II, Joined the revolt.
  • In Jhansi, the rani assumed the leadership of uprising.
  • Kunwar Singh, a local zamindar in Arrah in Bihar, took the leadership of the revolt.
  • Ganoo, a tribal cultivator of Singhbhum in Chotanagpur, became a rebel leader of the Kol tribals of the region.
  • In 1851 Governor General Lord Dalhousie described the kingdom of Awadh as “a cherry that will drop into our mouth one day”
  • In 1856, the Awadh Kingdom was formally annexed to the British Empire.
  • Nawab Wajid Ali Shah was dethroned and exiled to Calcutta on the plea that the region was misgoverned.
  • The annexation of Awadh dispossessed the taluqdars.
  • After annexation, the first revenue settlement, known as the summary settlement of 1856, was based on the assumption that the taluqdars were interlopers with no permanent stakes in land.
  • Many of the taluqdars were loyal to the Nawab of Awadh, and they joined Begum Hazrat Mahal (The wise of Nawab) in lucknow to fight the British.
  • Awadh was in fact, called “the nursery of the Bengal Army”
  • British attempts to recover Delhi began in earnest in early June 1857 but it was only in late September that the city was finally captured.
  • When the rebel forces besieged Lucknow, Henry Lawrence, the Commissioner of Lucknow, collected the Christian population and took refuge in the heavily fortified Residency, Lawrence was killed but the Residency was continued to be defended under the command of colonel Inglis. On 25 September James Outram and Henry Havelock arrived and 
  • reinforced the British garrisons. Twenty days later Colin Campbell came with his forces and rescued the besieged British garrison.
  • “Bell of Arms” is a store room in which weapons are kept.
  • “Firangi”, a term of Persian origin, possibly derived from Frank, is used in Urdu and Hindi, to designate foreigners.

Shah Mal:

He lived in a village in pargana Barout in Uttar Pradesh
He mobilised people to rebel against the British
He was killed in battle in July 1857

Maulvi Ahmadullah Shah:

  • He was educated in Hyderabad
  • He was popularly called Donka Shah
  • He fought in the famous Battle of Chinhat in which the British forces under Henry Lawrence were defeated.
  • Resident was the designation of a representative of the Governor General who lived in a state which was not under direct British rule.

Subsidiary Alliance:

  • It was devised by lord Wellesley in 1798.

All those who entered into such an alliance with the British had to accept certain terms and conditions:

  • The British would be responsible for protecting their ally from external and internal threats to their power.
  • The territory of the ally, a British armed contingent would be 
  • stationed.
  • The Ally would have to provide the resources for maintaining this contingent
  • The Ally would enter into agreements with other rulers or engage in warfare only with the permission of the British

Felice Beato – British Photographer

  • “Relief of Lucknow, painted by Thomas Jones Barker, in 1859.
  • “In Memoriam” was painted by Joseph Noel Paton in 1859.
  • Punch, a British journal of comic satire.

Chapter –3 

  • Kotwal –The imperial officer who oversaw the internal affairs and policing of the town.
  • Qasbah –It is a small town in the countryside, often the seat of local notable.
  • Ganj refers to a small fixed market.
  • The Portuguese set their base in Panaji in 1510.
  • The Dutch set their base in Masulipatnam in 1605.
  • The British set their base in Madras in 1639.
  • The French set their base in Pondicherry in 1673.
  • The first all India census was attempted in 1872.
  • The survey of India was established in the year 1878.
  • Ionic, Doric, and Corinthian were the three orders of ancient greek architecture.
  • Hill Stations were a distinctive feature of colonial urban development.
  • Simla was founded during the course of the Gurkha War (1815-16).
  • In 1864 the viceroy John Lawrence officially moved his council to Simla, setting seal to the practice of shifting capitals during the hot season.
  • In 1639, the East India company constructed a trading port in Madrasapattinam. This settlement was locally known as chennapatnam. 
  • The company had purchased the right of settlement from local Telugu lords, the Nayaks of Kalahasti.
  • Fort St.George was built in Chennai.
  • The dubashes were Indians who could speak two languages -the local language and English.
  • Calcutta had grown from three Villages called Sutanati, Kolkata, and Govindpur.
  • Fort William was built in Kolkata.
  • Bombay was initially seven islands.
  • University of Bombay and High Court of Maharashtra were built in Gothic style.
  • The most spectacular example of Neo Gothic style is the Victoria Terminus.
  • Victoria terminus Railway station was designed by F.W.Stevens.
  • Towards the beginning of new hybrid architectural developed which combined the Indian with the European. This was called „Indo-Saracenic‟.
  • Gateway of India, built in the traditional Gujarati style to welcome King George V and Queen Mary to India in 1911.

Binodini Das:

  • She was a pioneering figure in Bengali theatre.
  • She was one of the prime movers behind the setting up of the star Theatre (1883) in Calcutta.
  • She serialized her autobiography, Amar Katha

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