Wednesday, June 21, 2017

Online Preparation - Environmental Impact Survey 2017 - Study Notes

UPSC Free Study Materials-2018

Environmental Impact Survey

Environmental Impact Survey

  • India has been ranked 75th out of 102 countries in a list that ranks the countries in terms of the human impact on environment per person. The ranking has been done by MoneySuperMarket, a UK-based financial services website.
  • The ranking has been made based on the impact the citizens have on the environment by taking into account energy consumption, air pollution, waste production, reliance on non-renewable energy, the carbon dioxide emissions per capita, wastewater treatment capacity, municipal solid waste generated and tree cover loss etc. Of all the parameters, the most weight has been given to Carbon dioxide emissions, municipal solid waste and energy consumption.

Salient Highlights

Top 10 Performers: 

  • Mozambique (1st), 
  • Ethiopia (2nd), 
  • Zambia (3rd), 
  • Latvia (4th), 
  • Kenya (5th), 
  • Albania (6th), 
  • Ghana (7th), 
  • Tajikistan (8th), 
  • Nepal (9th), 
  • Colombia (10th).

Worst Performers: 

  • Trinidad and Tobago (102nd), 
  • United States (101st), S
  • ri Lanka (100th), 
  • Ireland (99th), 
  • Canada (98th), 
  • China (97th), 
  • Australia (96th), 
  • South Africa (95th), 
  • Cyprus (94th), 
  • Malaysia (93rd).

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Mozambique has topped the list as it derives almost all of its energy from green sources.

  • India, on the other hand, has been placed at 75th place as its renewable energy sources make up only 15.2% of all energy sources used.
  • The US has been placed second last on the list at the 101st position as the U.S. per capita carbon dioxide emissions are 17 tonnes per capita. 
  • Further, the country generates 2.58 kgs of municipal solid waste per person, and the energy consumption is 312.79 BTU per capita. Also, its reliance on renewable sources are even lower than India at 12.56%
  • India, on the other hand, generates 1.7 tonnes of carbon dioxide per capita (between 1990 and 2011), 0.34 kgs of municipal solid waste generated per day per person, and energy consumption at 19.75 BTU (British Thermal Unit.) India has been ranked poorly due to its low reliance on renewable energy (15.2%).

Trinidad and Tobago has been ranked last as it hardly relies on any green energy sources. Africa as a continent has topped the list.

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Free Study Materials - Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) 2017

UPSC-IAS-Preparation-Study-Materials-2018

Energy Conservation Building Code 2017

The Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC ) 2017 


  • Minister of State for Power, Coal, New and Renewable Energy and Mines has launched the Energy Conservation Building Code 2017 (ECBC 2017). This updated version of the Code prescribes the energy performance standards for new commercial buildings to be constructed across India.

Salient Highlights

  1. The Energy Conservation Building Code 2017 (ECBC 2017) has been developed by Ministry of Power and Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) with technical support from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) under the U.S.-India bilateral Partnership to Advance Clean Energy – Deployment Technical Assistance (PACE-D TA) Program.
  2. The code provides present as well as futuristic advancements in building technology to cut down building energy consumption and promote low-carbon growth.
  3. The code sets clear criteria for builders, designers and architects to integrate renewable energy sources in building design through the inclusion of passive design strategies.
  4. ECBC 2017 aims to optimise energy savings with the comfort levels for occupants. The code aims to achieve energy neutrality in commercial buildings.
  5. Apart from the current and futuristic advancements in building technology, the new code takes into account market changes, and energy demand scenario of the country. The code has been set in such a way that it will set a benchmark for Indian buildings to be amongst some of the most efficient globally.
  6. To be ECBC-compliant, the new buildings should be able to demonstrate minimum energy savings of 25%. Energy savings of 35% and 50% will enable the buildings to achieve higher grades like ECBC Plus or Super ECBC status respectively.
  7. The adoption of ECBC 2017 is expected to achieve a 50% reduction in energy use by 2030 which will translate into energy savings of about 300 Billion Units by 2030. It will result in expenditure savings of Rs 35,000 crore and reduction of 250 million tonnes of CO2.

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Monday, June 19, 2017

Free Study Materials - India gets Direct Access to Swiss Accounts

Free UPSC GS3 Economy Study Materials 

Swiss Accounts - Direct Access

Swiss Accounts - Direct Access


What has Switzerland Ratified?

  • Switzerland on 16/06/2017 ratified automatic exchange of financial account information (AEOI) with India and 40 other jurisdictions to facilitate immediate sharing of details about suspected black money, even as it sought strict adherence to confidentiality and data security.
  • Adopting the dispatch on introduction of the AEOI, a global convention for automatic information exchange on tax matters, the Swiss Federal Council said the implementation is planned for 2018 and the first set of data should be exchanged in 2019.
  • The council, which is the top governing body of the European nation, will soon notify the Indian government about the exact date from which the automatic exchange would begin.
  • As per the draft notification approved by the council in its meeting on 16/06/2017 Friday, the decision is not subject to any referendum — which means there should be no further procedural delay in its implementation.
  • The council said the proposal to introduce AEOI with India and others “met with widespread approval from the interested parties who voiced their opinions in the consultations“.
  • “In concrete terms, the AEOI will be activated with each individual state or territory by means of a specific federal decree within the framework of this dispatch,” it added.
  • The exchange of information itself will be carried out based on the Multilateral Competent Authority Agreement (MCAA) on the Automatic Exchange of Financial Account Information, which in turn is based on the international standard for the exchange of information developed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
  • The council said it will prepare a situation report before the first exchange of data, which is planned for autumn 2019.

Why is Switzerland Forced to Share Information?

  • For decades, Switzerland was the place where money went to hide. Cash sent to its mountain sanctuaries was protected by some of the strictest secrecy laws in the world.
  • But the euro crisis of 2011 saw Switzerland's strict banking secrecy come under assault from countries such as Germany and Britain as never before.
  • The council that serves as Switzerland's executive branch had to start looking into steps toward banking transparency after having been threatened with painful isolation if it did not agree to reforms. 
  • There have also been continuous global efforts to crackdown on illicit fund flows in the system and do away with banking secrecy practices.

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Friday, June 16, 2017

NavIC - Navigation Indian Constellation GS3 |Science |Space |ISRO

Prelims Main |GS3 |Science |Space |ISRO

Navigation Indian Constellation

NavIC - Navigation Indian Constellation

The prime objective of ISRO is to develop space technology and its application to various national tasks. 

  • NavIC was one such attempt to make India self reliant in GPS systems as during kargil war USA had denied access to its GPS system to India which led to development of NavIC.
  • Important news card as it contains major details regarding NavIC.
  • The clocks on the first satellite, IRNSS-1A had failed in June 2016, affecting the accuracy of the “GPS”.
  • ISRO is trying to rectify this problem.

What is NavIC?

  • Navigation Indian Constellation (NavIC) is an independent Indian satellite-based positioning system for critical national applications.
  • NavIC consists of a constellation of seven satellites, three of which are in a geostationary orbit and four in a geosynchronous.
  • Its purpose is to provide ‘reliable position, navigation and timing services over India and neighbourhood’.

According to ISRO, the applications of IRNSS are: 

  • Terrestrial, aerial and marine navigation, vehicle tracking and fleet management, terrestrial navigation for hikers and travellers, disaster management, integration with mobile phones, mapping and geodetic data capture and visual and voice navigation for drivers.

What’s the problem?

  • NavIC relies on rubidium clocks as navigation requires the most accurate clocks.
  • This January, the ISRO confirmed that the clocks on the first satellite, IRNSS-1A had failed in June 2016.
  • Though six of the satellites are working fine, the one faulty one means the “GPS” isn’t working as accurately as it ought to be.

How’s it being fixed?

  • ISRO was trying to revive the clocks on 1A.
  • It is also readying one of the two back-up navigation satellites to replace it in space in the second half of this year.

Future prospects:

  • Rubidium clocks were the previous standard in accurate clocks and most organisations, that need precise time estimates, need cesium clocks.
  • Future clocks on such satellites, each with a lifespan of 10 years, will host such clocks.

From UPSC Exam perspective, following things are important:

Prelims level: 

  • NavIC, GPS, Rubidium and cesium clocks. (Also look at properties of these elements, position in periodic table etc.)

Mains level: 

  • NavIC and various other missions of ISRO. (There was a question in Mains 2016 on this topic)

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Thursday, June 15, 2017

Kigali Amendment to Montreal Protocol - Free Study Materials

UPSC Free Study Materials www.allstudymaterials.com

Kigali Amendment to Montreal Protocol

Kigali Amendment to Montreal Protocol


What is Kigali Amendment?

  • It amends the 1987 Montreal Protocol
  • It aims to phase out Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), a family of potent greenhouse gases by the late 2040s
  • Under Kigali Amendment, in all 197 countries, including India have agreed to a timeline to reduce the use of HFCs by roughly 85% of their baselines by 2045.

What is significance of the Kigali Amendment?

  • The Kigali Amendment amends the 1987 Montreal Protocol that was designed to close growing ozone hole in by banning ozone-depleting coolants like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
  • Thus, amended Montreal Protocol which was initially conceived only to plug gases that were destroying the ozone layer now includes HFCs responsible for global warming.
  • This move will help to prevent a potential 0.5 degree Celsius rise in global temperature by the end of the century.
  • The Kigali Agreement or amended Montreal Protocol for HFCs reduction will be binding on countries from 2019.
  • It also has provisions for penalties for non-compliance.
  • Under it, developed countries will also provide enhanced funding support estimated at billions of dollars globally. The exact amount of additional funding from developed countries will be agreed at the next Meeting of the Parties in Montreal in 2017.

Different timelines under Kigali Amendment

All signatory countries have been divided into three groups with different timelines to go about reductions of HFCs.

First Group: 

  • It includes richest countries like US and those in European Union (EU). They will freeze production and consumption of HFCs by 2018. They will reduce them to about 15% of 2012 levels by 2036.

Second Group: 

  • It includes countries like China, Brazil and all of Africa etc. They will freeze HFC use by 2024 and cut it to 20% of 2021 levels by 2045.

Third Group: 

  • It includes countries India, Pakistan, Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia etc. They will be freezing HFC use by 2028 and reducing it to about 15% of 2025 levels by 2047.

How it is different from Paris agreement?

  • The Paris agreement which will come into force by 2020 is not legally binding on countries to cut their emissions. The Kigali Amendment is considered absolutely vital for reaching the Paris Agreement target of keeping global temperature rise to below 2-degree Celsius compared to pre-industrial times.

Also Read

NOTE: 

  • HFCs (Hydrofluorocarbons) are not Ozone Depleting Substances but still they are included in Montreal Protocol via Kigali Agreement because they are potent global warming substances.
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Saturday, June 10, 2017

AAGC - Asia-Africa Growth Corridor - An Analysis

"चीन के OBOR (वन बेल्ट, वन रोड) परियोजना को टक्कर देने के लिए भारत AAGC प्रोजेक्ट"

AAGC -  Asia-Africa Growth Corridor - An Analysis


भारत द्वारा ओबीओआर को लाल झंडी दिखाते समय माना जा रहा था कि चीन को घेरने के लिए भारत कोई बड़ी रणनीति बनाएगा, ऐसे में भारत ने अनोखी परियोजना के तहत जापान के साथ मिलकर चीनी ओबीओार का मुकाबला करेंगे।

  • भारत और जापान मिलकर एएजीसी (AAGC) पर काम करेंगे और इसमें कई देशों का साथ मिलने की वजह से भारत ओबीओआर की काट भी निकाल लेगा।

=>क्या है एएजीसी प्रोजेक्ट?

  • एएसीजी का पूरा नाम एशिया-अफ्रीका ग्रोथ कॉरिडोर है। इसके बारे में पहली बार बात पिछले साल जापान के प्रधानमंत्री शिंजो अबे और भारत के प्रधानमंत्री नरेंद्र मोदी की मुलाकात के समय हुई थी। अब ये परियोजना आगे बढ़ाई जा रही है।
  • इसके तहत भारत, अफ्रीका और अन्य सहयोगी देशों के बंदरगाहों को एक नए रूट से जोड़ा जाएगा, जो सुरक्षित होने के साथ ही फायदा देने वाला होगा। इसके तहत भारत के जामनगर पोर्ट, अफ्रीकी देश दिजिबूती के पोर्ट, मोंबासा, जांजीबार के पोर्ट के साथ ही म्यांमार के सित्तवे पोर्ट को भी जोड़ा जाएगा। 
  • भारत पहले से ही अपने बंदरगाहों को सागरमाला प्रोजेक्ट के जरिए उन्नत बनाने के काम में लगा हुआ है। 
  • एएजीसी प्रोजेक्ट 'इंडो-पैसिफिक रीजन में मुक्त और खुले व्यापारिक सहयोग' को बढ़ाने की कोशिश है।

=>ओबीओआर से किस तरह अलग है एएजीसी?

  • चीन का ओबीओआर प्रोजेक्ट पुराने सिल्क रूट को जिंदा करने की कोशिश है, जिसके तहत चीन जमीन के रास्ते सभी देशों में पैठ बनाने की कोशिश कर रहा है। वो कच्चे माल को इकट्ठा कर उसे खपाने के लिए बड़े बाजार की तलाश कर रहा है, जिसके तहत चीनी सरकार भारी मात्रा में विनिर्माण कार्यों में निवेश कर रहा है।
  • खास बात ये है कि चीन का ओबीओआर पूरी तरह से चीनी सरकार के प्रभुत्व वाली परियोजना है, जिसपर आने वाला पूरा खर्च भी चीनी सरकार उठा रही है।
  • एएजीसी परियोजना भारत और जापान की अगुवाई में समंदर के रास्ते नया रूट सामने लाने की कोशिश है। इसके तहत भारत और जापान अफ्रीकी देशों के साथ ही दक्षिण एशियाई, पूर्वी एशियाई और आसियान देशों के साथ मिलकर सी-कॉरिडोर पर काम कर रहे हैं।
  • इस परियोजना के तहत भारत, जापान, म्यांमार, दक्षिण अफ्रीका, मोजांबिक, सिंगापुर, ऑस्ट्रेलिया जैसे देश शामिल हो रहे हैं। इसके अलावा इसकी फंडिंग सरकारों के जिम्मे न होकर अफ्रीकन डेवलपमेंट बैंक जैसी बड़ी संस्थाएं फंड करेंगी।
  • साथ ही जापान और भारत अपने स्तर पर इसमें निवेश करेंगे, तो प्राइवेट निवेशकों के पास भी निवेश का भारी मौका होगा। इसके लिए भारत और जापान के उद्यमी संयुक्त कंपनियों के माध्यम से निवेश करेंगे।
  • वैसे, ओबीओआर के साथ ही चीन समंदर पर भी निगाहें गड़ाए बैठा है, जिसके लिए वो पाकिस्तानी, श्रीलंकाई, बांग्लादेशी बंदरगाहों को विकसित कर रहा है। पर एएजीसी की वजह से उसका ये रुट निष्प्रभावी किया जा सकता है। 
  • इसकी वजह है एएजीसी के रूट का सीधा और सपाट होना, जो सुरक्षित, छोटा और सुविधाजनक होगा।

=>भारत को किन देशों का मिलेगा साथ?

  • भारत को इस परियोजना में जापान, म्यांमार, दक्षिण अफ्रीका, मोजांबिक, सिंगापुर, ऑस्ट्रेलिया जैसे देशों का साथ मिलेगा। 

=>भारत और जापान की प्राथमिक जिम्मेदारियां

  • जापान इस प्रोजेक्ट के तहत आने वाले बंदरगाहों पर सुविधाओं का विस्तार करेगा और उन्हें विकसित करेगा। भारत अपने अफ्रीका में काम करने के अनुभव का इस्तेमाल करेगा। जापान को बंदरगाह विकसित करने की तकनीकी के मामले में महारत हासिल है। 
  • इसके अलावा दोनों ही देशों के उद्यमी इस परियोजना में निवेश भी करेंगे।
  • चीन भारत को घेरने के लिए भारत के पड़ोसी देशों में निवेश और व्यापार के बहाने अपनी पैठ बढ़ा रहा है। पर इस नए रूट के खुल जाने से समंदर के रास्ते होने वाले व्यापार का बड़ा हिस्सा इसमें आ जाएगा। 
  • दूसरी बात ये है कि चीन का ओबीओआर प्रोजेक्ट जमीन के रास्ते बनना है, जिसमें काफी ज्यादा समय और धन खर्च हो रहा है, वहीं एएजीसी प्रोजेक्ट पानी के रास्ते भारत को अफ्रीका, दक्षिण एशियाई और पूर्वी एशियाई-आसियान देशों तक पहुंचाएगा।

अभी अफ्रीकी देशों में चीन की उपस्थिति किस तरह की है

  • अभी चीन ने अफ्रीकी देशों में भारी निवेश किया है।
  • अफ्रीकी महाद्वीप में तेजी से बढ़ रही अर्थव्यवस्थाओं में चीन का बड़ा हिस्सा है। चीन इन देशों में सड़कों, कारखानों के विकास में लगा हुआ है। साथ ही चीन इन देशों के कुल निर्यात का 28 फीसदी माल भी खरीदता है। ऐसे में एएजीसी परियोजना द्वारा भारत और जापान चीन की हिंद महासागर में नाकेबंदी के लिए तैयार हैं। 
  • चीन ने साल 2015-2016 में अफ्रीकी देशों में 38.4 बिलियन डॉलर का निवेश किया, इसके मुकाबले भारत ने महज 2.2 बिलियन डॉलर का निवेश किया। ये निवेश ग्रीनफील्ड इनवेस्टमेंट के तौर पर की गई। इस बड़े अंतर को कम करने के लिए भी एएजीसी मददगार साबित हो सकता है।

=>अफ्रीका में किस तरह से बढ़ेगा भारत का दखल -

  • भारत-जापान मिलकर अफ्रीकी देशों में बंदरगाहों का विकास करेंगे। नए रूट के खुलने से व्यापार में बढ़ोतरी होगी। निजी निवेश भी बढ़ेगा। 
  • भारत के अफ्रीका से संबंध बहुत पहले से रहे हैं। चीन की उपस्थिति की वजह से असंतुलिन हुए संबंधों को फिर से संतुलित किया जा सकेगा। 
  • अफ्रीकी देशों को भारत के रूप में भरोसेमंद सहयोगी के साथ व्यापार करने में दिक्कत भी नहीं आएगी। इसके साथ ही हिंद महासागर के साथ ही अरब सागर, बंगाल की खाडी, अदन की खाड़ी तक भारतीय नौसेना का भी एकछत्र राज होगा।

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Wednesday, May 17, 2017

Cyberattack - Ransomware - Malicious Software - Wanna Crypt

Prelims | GS3 | Cyber Security|Global Cyber Attack

Ransomware

Ransomware: Everything to know about the global cyberattack

What exactly happened?

  • A crypto-ransomware that is also called Wanna Crypt, affected at least 45,000 computers spread over 74 countries, including India, on Friday. The WanaCrypt0r 2.0 bug encrypts data on a computer within seconds and displays a message asking the user to pay a ransom of $ 300 in Bitcoins to restore access to the device and the data inside. Alarmingly, the attack also hit the National Health Service of the United Kingdom, stalling surgeries and other critical patient care activity across the British Isles, and making confidential patient information and documents inaccessible.

But what is ransomware? How is it different from other malicious software?

  • There are many types of malware that affect a computer, ranging from those that steal your information to those that just delete everything on the device. Ransomware, as the name suggests, prevents users from accessing their devices and data until a certain ransom is paid to its creator. Ransomware usually locks computers, encrypts the data on it and prevents software and apps from running.

How was the attack ultimately brought under control? What could potentially have happened otherwise?

  • The attack was brought under control by an “accidental hero”, a security researcher who wants to be identified only as MalwareTech, who discovered a hard-coded security switch in the form of a link to a nonsensical domain name. 
  • He bought the domain name for $10.69, and this triggered thousands of pings from affected devices, thus killing the ransomware and its spread. If this had not been discovered, millions of computers worldwide could theoretically have been locked within a few days, affecting all kinds of services globally. 
  • Within hours of this attack, many surgeries were reported to have been put off, x-rays cancelled, and ambulances called back — just in the UK, where at least 40 hospitals under NHS were affected. 
  • It had been long feared that an attack of this nature could bring public utilities or transport systems to a halt, forcing the government to pay a huge ransom to normalise services — for a few hours on Friday, that day appeared to have arrived.

Who was behind the attack and what was their motivation?

  • It isn’t known yet. However, it is widely accepted that the hackers used the ‘Eternal Blue Hacking Weapon’ created by America’s National Security Agency (NSA) to gain access to Microsoft Windows computers used by terrorist outfits and enemy states. 
  • Since over a thousand computers in the Russian Interior Ministry, as well as computers in China, were hit, some of the state- or quasi-state actors suspected of carrying out largescale break-ins of computer systems in the United States will, on this occasion, start as not being immediate suspects. 
  • .Interestingly, the NSA tool was stolen in April by a group called Shadow Broker, who seemed unhappy with US President Donald Trump, whom they said they had voted for.

Also Read 

How secure are Indian databases such as banks or UID (Aadhaar)?

  • The attack was specifically targeted at Microsoft Windows devices. Microsoft claims it “released a security update which addresses the vulnerability that these attacks are exploiting” in March itself, and advised users to update their systems in order to deploy the latest patches. 
  • However, in India, where most official computers run Windows, regular updates might not be a habit, and hence the vulnerability could be very high. A lot of personal data online are now connected to the Aadhaar data of over a billion Indians. Pradipto Chakrabarty, Regional Director, CompTIA India, said that the linking of Aadhaar to bank accounts, income-tax and other sensitive information increases the “threat surface”. 
  • “Since the user’s bank account is linked with his Aadhaar number, the ransomware can potentially lock down the account and make it unusable unless a ransom is paid,” Chakrabarty said. Amit Nath, Head of Asia Pacific, Corporate Business, at F-Secure Corporation, said the success of the Wanna Cry ransomware attack could give hostile nation states a reason to create cyber weapons where there’s no hope of ever recovering the data. “That’s the worst case scenario,” Nath said.

Given the manifest vulnerabilities of the digital age, what, if anything, can you do to protect yourself?

  • A post attributed to Phillip Misner, Principal Security Group Manager, Microsoft Security Response Center, said some of the attacks were using “common phishing tactics” like malicious attachments, and asked users to be cautious while opening attachments. The least you can do is stop clicking links that you don’t trust, and stop downloading software from unknown sources.

F-Secure highlights the need for a four-phase approach to cybersecurity: 

  • Predict, Prevent, Detect, and Respond. Predict by performing an exposure analysis; prevent by deploying a defensive solution to reduce the attack surface; Respond by determining how a breach happened and what impact it had on systems; and detect by monitoring infrastructure for signs of intrusion or suspicious behaviour.
Prelims -GS3 -Cyber Security

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Green Budget - Implication - How it help in Climate Change

UPSC-Study Materials Free

Green Budget - Implication

What do you mean by Green Budget? Discuss its implication in India and do you think that green budget can help in solving the problem of climate change.


  • At the same time Environmental concerns are increasing year after year and hence the Green Computing is increasingly becoming important. 
  • Every year government presents the Budget for future aspiration of country. With the increasing concern towards sustainable environment from the world fraternity, the countries worldwide have started the process of Green budget. 
  • The green budget is one area where governments can influence human’s interaction with the environment by discouraging environmental destruction, and encouraging beneficial behavior. 
  • Through this process, the coalition of national conservation organizations and environmental group identifies some of the programs to be included in the Green Budget. 

This budget displays how the central funding for conservation can help, such as:

  1. To meet the environmental and climatic challenges of a changing climate,
  2. Sustain our nation’s natural resources like lands, waters etc, and 
  3. Develop our clean energy resources.

Green Budget or Green Accounting

  • Green Budget or Green Accounting is one of the types of accounting tries to include all factorial environmental costs into the financial results of operations. 
  • It is been debated and argued that gross domestic product (GDP) ignores the environmental loss and degradation while calculating it, and therefore policymakers and government need a revised model that incorporates them through green accounting.
  • The main idea of having the green accounting is to help understand the advantages of achieving traditional and desired economics goals in respect with environmental goals. 
  • It also increases the related information which is available for analyzing key policy issues, especially when those vital and important pieces of information are often overlooked left unrecognized. 
  • The Green accounting/budgeting helps to promote a sustainable future for businesses as it brings green research and development and green public procurement into the big picture. 
  • Penalties and fines for polluters and incentives (such as tax breaks, polluting permits, Green points etc.) are also a major crucial part of this type of accounting.

Also Read 

Why it’s Important?

  • Green budget gives us the assurance that not only the present but the future generations are also hazard free and safe. It gives us a sense of satisfaction that we not only care for the people, but for all the living beings, natural resources, flora and fauna etc. 
  • Hence making budget green is not only about how much fund is allotted for wildlife or forest protection. It is about integrating them into every aspect of our economy and to ensure that there is no wasteful and undesired use of natural resources.

Government Initiative 

  • For many past years, green issues in India are either hastily added or overlooked in FM’s budget speech. But this year FM Arun Jaitley seems to have done better, but there are still miles to go to ensure that there is full integration of all the green concerns into every aspects of the economy or just to get a recognition by our ministers that investing and protecting the environment is good for the economy.

World And India 

  • In today’s world when many countries are on the verge of facing the wrath of nature with a possible climate change impact, India is also one of those countries. India is considered one of the most vulnerable countries with various climate change hazards like floods, drought, landslide, sea-level rise. 
  • In such scenario climate change will have a negative and disastrous impact on food security, farming, forests, water resources, marine biodiversity, and coastal areas and coastal livelihoods, and health cam effect Indian people severely. Climate change is said to have a strong influence on the overall economic development of India.

Green Budgeting - How Can Anyone Understand

  • This is when Green Budgeting, an instrument that facilitates Integration of Environmental Policies, can be applied to solve this problem. Generally, Green Budgeting can be understood as a “process in which all the dimensions of sustainable development [ecological balance, social progress and economic growth,] are completely integrated in one single policy that is budget document.” 
  • Further, the Green Budget (GB) has the functions to comprehensively and consistently analyse government revenues and expenditures to bring absolute sustainable development. The major importance is given to non-economic targets such as percentage of reduction in carbon emission in a given year that the government expects to reduce.
  • The Green Budgeting system has its roots in the Green Economy Model and based on the concept of sustainable development. 
  • The first and solid impetuses for Green Budgeting came into the Agenda 21 and Brundtland Report that emphasizes the need to ensure the coherence of economic, social, sectoral, and environmental policies, and plans instruments, including fiscal measures and the budget´. 
  • The process of Green budgeting can be also seen as being integrated into the Green Economy as economic development model, which is directly opposed to the current black´ economy system which relies on fossil fuels. 
  • The Green Economy is based on the theory of ecological economics that focuses on the interdependence of human economies and natural ecosystem and the adverse impact of human economic activities on climate change under United Nations Environment Program-UNEP.

India’s Step towards Green Budget

  • In this year budget, the allocation of around Rs.150 crore has been made for National Afforestation Programme. The attempts have also been to discourage the practice of “dirty coal” by increasing the clean energy cess to Rs.200 from Rs.100 per tonne of coal to finance clean environment initiatives. 
  • However, there is not much clarity on how this money will be spend to start the clean environment initiatives as previous funds allocated for the environmental cause too are lying unused and if implemented then through which department of the government.
  • The announcement to encourage organic farming, the government setting up of a Rs.400 crore fund. A separate programme would be started for sustainable groundwater management. 
  • However, the commitments done under the Paris climate summit for conscious transition to a low-carbon economy by India is missing from this year budget. 
  • Apart from a above mentioned initiatives for protecting groundwater, the budget significantly assumes that growth can not happen without these natural resources.

World Initiative

  • Internationally, a strategy has been created for reallocating investments towards the green economy, which initially may lead to slower potential economic growth rate for a few years, as renewable natural resources are replenished (an effect that can be strong in some sectors, such as fisheries), but in the long run it will result into faster economic growth. 
  • The UNEP report on Green Economy also underlines other various benefits for the economy as it leads to reduction in the risks of adverse negative events associated with climate change, water scarcity and energy shocks while creating increased employment.

Why investment in Natural Resources?

  • There are various advantages associated with the investment made for natural resources. For example, the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFR) estimates that families living around forests or in forest earn an average of one-fourth to one-fifth of their income from forest-based resources. According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates in 2005 that the value of extracted non-timber forest products from worldwide forests amounted to $18.5 billion. 
  • In India along with many countries, local economies and livelihoods are thrived by non-timber forest products although their role is understated.

Way ahead:

  • Government should not merely proposed some law and consider it done. But efficient implementation of the laws is equally important. 
  • Further government can create a Green Protection Fund (GPF) which could be used to protect existing wildlife, front-line forest protection force with better equipped, forest belts, free flowing of rivers without garbage and sludge, and better biodiversity protection.

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Saturday, May 13, 2017

Subject-Wise Strategies For UPSC CSE Preliminary-2018

Subject-Wise Strategies For UPSC CSE Preliminary

UPSC Civil Service Preliminary Examination 2017

UPSC Civil Service Preliminary Examination 2017 

  • UPSC will be conducting the Civil Service preliminary examination on June 18. 

Candidates who are appearing for the exam can check out the subject-wise strategies mentioned below:

Art and Culture-

  • This subject has become important in recent times for both prelims & mains. Aspirants should give special focus to paintings, architecture, dance forms, martial arts, folk cultures, etc.Student can refer to class 11 NCERT's Introduction to Indian Arts, NIOS book on Art and Culture as well as CCRT website to prepare this subject thoroughly

History-

  • As per the few past years trend, UPSC is focusing more on ancient and medieval history, therefore, students should devote equal amount of time to ancient, medieval as well as modern history.
  • Topics related to Indus Valley civilisation, jainism, buddhism, mughals and southern kingdoms are important from ancient and medieval history . Revising old NCERT's is the best way to prepare this subject for prelims Also, students can prepare their own notes to revise effectively during last few days

Geography-

  • The focus should be on Indian geography Under world geography, map reading is more than enough. In map reading, special focus should be on areas which were in news recently. For example, Syria due to ISIS or South China Sea due to Island issue.
  • Map reading is also important in Indian geography, as at least one question always comes in Geography paper based on Indian map.NCERT books of class 8 to class 12 are the best source to prepare this subject. Besides, certificate physical and human geography by Goh Cheng Leong is also very useful book for prelims preparation.

Polity-

  • Special emphasis should be on chapters related to fundamental rights, directive principles on state policy, fundamental duties, president and parliament are the most important.Apart from this students should focus on issues in the news and try to relate them to the provisions in constitution.In recent times, UPSC is also asking more and more questions from government schemes and policies.For studying conventional polity students can refer books by Subhash Kashyap and PM Bakshi

Economy-

  • Current pattern of questions in economics is mainly related to basic concepts, current events, international organisations, etc.To be able to attempt the questions from economy successfully, student should first clear the basic concepts from class 11 and class 12 NCERTs.
  • Apart from this, regular updates from news especially related to RBI and Government initiatives are mustOne of the best ways to study economics is to continuously link news articles with basic concepts of economics for better understanding of the subject

Environment-

  • This subject has become very important since 2013 when prelims for civil services and forest services were merged.Variety of questions are asked from this subject and hence, it needs a thorough preparation.
  • Yet, some important topics for this subject are location of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries, endangered species in India and their habitat, various international conventions on climate change, basic concepts related to ecology and environment.
  • Class 9 and class 10 ICSE board books on environmental education are very helpful in preparation of this subject

Science and Technology-

  • Generally aspirants neglect this subject while preparing for the prelims. But this subject is equally important to score well in prelims.NCERT books of class 11 and class 12 of physics, chemistry and biology helps in preparing the basics of this subject.
  • Current events related to science and technology is another major area from where questions are asked.Students can focus specially on space related news, India's achievements, any revolutionary innovations and Nobel prizes.

Current affairs

  • Current affairs has become prominent from last two years as number of questions are asked from current affairs.Also, any current affair related to any subject mentioned above becomes important.Best way to cover current affairs is to regularly read prominent news papers and magazines

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Tuesday, May 9, 2017

UPSC -Geography - भारत का भूगोल - Soils - मृदाएं - Basic Lecture 2

UPSC -Geography -भारत का भूगोल 

मृदाएं (Soils) Part-2

मृदाएं (Soils) Part-2

भारत में मृदा-समस्याएँ"

मिट्टी की प्राकृतिक क्षमता अथवा उर्वरता ही भू-दक्षता (Land Capability) या ‘भू-क्षमता’ Land Efficiency) कहलाती है । मिट्टी का सीमा से अधिक प्रयोग करने पर इसके प्राकृतिक क्षमता में हृास होता है, जिससे विभिन्न मृदा समस्याओं का जन्म होता है, जो मानव अस्तित्व के लिए एक चिन्ता का विषय है। भारतीय कृषि आयोग के अनुसार भारत के कुल भौगोलिक क्षेत्र का 53.19 प्रतिशत क्षेत्र अपरदन की समस्या से ग्रसित है जिसमें जल तथा वायु अपरदन से प्रभावित भूमि 14.12 करोड़ हेक्टेयर एवं अन्य कारणों से अपरदित क्षेत्र 3.37 करोड़ हेक्टेयर है

भारत में मृदा-समस्याएँ

1. मृदा अपरदन (Soil Erosion)

  • प्राकृतिक कारणों से अपरदन
  • मानवीय कारणों से अपरदन ।

प्राकृतिक कारणों से अपरदन ----

  • जलीय अपरदन 
  • सागरीय अपरदन
  • वायु अपरदन 
  • हिमानी अपरदन
  • निर्वनीकरण 
  • जुताई

मानवीय कारणों से अपरदन -

मृदा प्रदूषण ----

  1. ऊसरीकरण 
  2. बंजर भूमि
  3. नम भूमि 
  4. अम्लीकरण
  5. रिले-क्रापिंग 
  6. रासायनिक उर्वरकों का प्रयोग
  7. नगरीय तथा औद्योगिक कचरा

Also Read

UPSC | GS | State | Mizoram | An Introduction

👉मदा अपरदन के कारक:--

जलीय अपरदन (Fluvial Erosion)-

  • जल द्वारा मिट्टी के घुलनशील पदार्थों को घुला कर बहा ले जाना घोलीकरण (Solution) या जलकृत अपरदन (Corrosion) कहलाता है । जल की चोट से मिट्टी का स्थानान्तरण जलगति क्रिया (Hydraulic Action) कहलाता है । जल कई रूपों में मृदा-अपरदन का कार्य करता है। इनमें प्रमुख है - चादर अपरदन, नलिका अपरदन, अवनालिका अपरदन आदि।

सागरीय अपरदन -----

  • सागर की लहरें तट से टकराकर चट्टानों का अपक्षय करती हैं । सागरीय जल के विभिन्न विक्षोभों में सर्वाधिक अपरदन लहरों (Waves) द्वारा होती है । ज्वार; (Tide) से भी अपरदन होता है । समुद्र की सतह पर लहरों द्वारा तय की गयी दूरी फेच (Fetch) कहलाती है । फेच जितना अधिक लम्बा होता है, समुद्री अपरदन उतना अधिक तीव्र होता है । भारत में लहरों द्वारा सर्वाधिक अपरदन केरल के पश्चिमी तट तथा महराष्ट्र तट पर होता है । समुद्री अपरदन से बचने के लिए केरल सरकार ने तट के सहारे ग्रेनाइट दीवाल (Granite Wall) का निर्माण कराया है ।

3. वायु अपरदन - (Wind Erosion) -

  • तीव्र पवनों के प्रभाव से सूक्ष्म कणों का उड़ाया जाना अपवाहन ;(Deflation) कहलाता है। मृदा-अपरदन चक्रवातों द्वारा भी होता है, जिसमें चक्रवात मिट्टी को उड़ाकर छोटे गर्त बना देते हैं, जिन्हें धूलि का कटोरा ;(Dust Bowl) कहा जाता है । भारत में मई तथा जून माह में रबी की फसलों की कटाई के पश्चात् सतलज-गंगा-ब्रह्मपुत्र मैदान की उपजाऊ मिट्टी का भी पवन द्वारा पर्याप्त मात्रा में अपरदन होता है

4. हिमानी अपरदन (Glacial Erosion):---

  • हिमालय में हिमरेखा के नीचे बहने वाले बर्फ तथा जल को हिमनद;(Glacier) कहा जाता है। ये चट्टानों तथा मिट्टी को काटकर निचली घाटी में जमा कर देते हैं, जिन्हें हिमोढ(Moraine) कहा जाता है ।

5. निर्वनीकरण (Deforestation):----

निर्वनीकरण द्वारा मृदा-अपरदन में वृद्धि होती है, क्योंकि वन मिट्टी को अपरदित होने से निम्न रूपों में बचाते हैं -
  • जड़ों द्वारा अपरदन पर नियंत्रण कर,
  • पत्तियों द्वारा बूँदाघात अपरदन ;(Splash erosion) के नियंत्रण द्वारा तथा
  • भूमि पर गिरी पत्तियों द्वारा धरातलीय प्रवाह की गति में कमी तथा अपवाहन (Deflation) की दर को कम करके । निर्वनीकरण के द्वारा देश में सर्वाधिक मृदा-अपरदन पश्चिमी घाट क्षेत्र में, शिवालिक पर्वत वाले क्षेत्र में तथा उत्तरी-पूर्वी राज्यों में होता है । उत्तरी-पूर्वी राज्यों में झूम खेती (Shifting Cultivation) के कारण भी मृदा-अपरदन की दर अधिक है ।

6. जुताई----

  • ढाल के अनुद्धैर्य जुताई से वर्षा का जल तेजी से नलिका तथा अवनलिका का विकास कर उपजाऊ मिट्टी बहा ले जाता है ।

👉मदा अपरदन के प्रकार (Kinds of Soil Erosion):---

चादर अपरदन(Sheet Erosion)

  • वर्षा की बूदों के मिट्टी पर आघात से सतह पर छोटे-छोटे गड्ढे बन जाते हैं । इन गड्ढ़ों को बूँदाघात क्रेटर (Splash Crater) तथा इन गड्ढ़ों द्वारा मृदा अपरदन को बूँदाघात अपरदन (Splash Erosion) कहा जाता है । जब वर्षा का जल धरातल की मिट्टी को संतृप्त कर सतह पर प्रवाहित होने लगता है तो उसे धरातलीय-प्रवाह (Surface Run-off) कहा जाता है । और जब यह प्रवाह समतल ढ़ाल पर चादर के रूप में होता है तब इसे चादर अपरदन (Sheet Erosion) कहा जाता है । इस प्रवाह से लगभग एक करोड़ एकड़ क्षेत्र प्रभावित होता है, जिसके फलस्वरूप प्रतिवर्ष देश की औसतन दो इंच मोटी परत अपरदित हो जाती है । चादर अपरदन द्वारा सर्वाधिक प्रभावित क्षेत्र सतलज-गंगा-ब्रह्मपुत्र मैदान तथा पश्चिमी एवं पूर्वी तटवर्ती मेदान हैं ।

नलिका अपरदन (Rill Erosion)

  • ढ़ाल की तेजी तथा जल की मात्रा के अधिक होने से चादर रूप में बहता हुआ जल छोटी-छोटी अंगुली के आकार की नलिकाएँ (Fingertip Streams) विकसित करता है, जिन्हें ‘नलिका’ (Rill) कहा जाता है ।

अवनलिका अपरदन (Gully Erosion)

  • नलिकाएं आगे चलकर और अधिक गहरी तथा चैड़ी हो जाती है, जिन्हें अवनलिका (Gully) कहा जाता है

बीहड़ीकरण (Revination):---

  • मुख्य नदियों के दोनों कगारों के सहारे ऊँची-नीची स्थलाकृति विकसित हो जाती है, जिसे बीहड़ (Ravines) कहा जाता है । इसी क्रिया को बीहड़ीकरण (Ravination) कहा जाता है । भारत के सर्वाधिक गहरे बीहड़ चम्बल घाटी में हैं, जो 40-60 मीटर गहरे हैं । इसके अतिरिक्त बेतवा, केन, धसान, यमुना नर्मदा ताप्ती, माही तथा साबरमती आदि नदियों ने भी अपनी घाटियों में बीहड़ों का निर्माण किया है ।

मृदा सर्पण (Soil Creep):---

  • अधिक ढाल के कारण गुरुत्वाकर्षण के प्रभाव से नीचे की ओर मृदा के खिसकने को मृदा सर्पण (Soil Creep) कहते हैं ।

पंकवाह (Earth Flow):--'

  • गीली मिट्टी का धारा के रूप में ढ़ाल के सहारे प्रवाहित होना पंकवाह कहलाता है । भारत में ये घटनाएँ सामान्यतः नदियों के किनारे घटित होती हैं ।

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